Oware rules pdf

You can move by picking up the stones in any hole on your side of the board and seeding anticlockwise, but each player may only seeds one hole per turn. Where 12 or more seeds are sown on a turn, the original house is skipped, and play continues on the next house.

It's forbidden to touch or to point at the stones to count them. You may only count by looking at the stones. A player who has no stones on the opponent's side must if possible put stones on the opponent's side.

If this isn't possible, all of the stones remaining belong to player whose side they are on. A player can capture stones by landing on the opponent's side of the board where the final hole contains 2 or 3 stones.

When the previous hole has also 2 or 3 stones, then they are captured as well. This goes on back to the last hole that finished with 2 or 3 stones or the last hole on the opponent's side. When both players have captured 24 seeds, it's a draw. When a player is unable to continue play, and his opponent is unable to feed him more seed.

Or when an impasse is reached in which neither player can affect another capture, as when two or three pieces are endlessly chasing each other around the board. Both players must agree to stop play, and will split the seeds left evenly, with the player having the most seeds on his side keeping the odd one. A penalty is given for leaving the opponent's side without stones to move with.

Then the player must forfeit all the remaining stones on the board to the opponent. So, it's very important that players try to have at least one stone on the opponent's side or else they must be sure that the move will win more stones than are lost with this penalty. Players can agree to stop the game when a stalemate sitution arises in the end game when both players can easily avoid any further losses for ever.

Then the game stops and the captured stones are counted and in this case, the stones on the board are not counted by either player. Latest Posts Games Categories Shops. How to play Oware and Wari Official Rules. Capturing Stones A player can capture stones by landing on the opponent's side of the board where the final hole contains 2 or 3 stones. Captured stones are immediately removed from the game. If a move is made that would leave the opponent without seeds, no seeds are captured.

Mancala - Real Wood Folding Set.Oware is a strategy game for two players. It belongs to the wider family of mancala games, also known as count-and-capture games due to the peculiarity of their gameplay, consisting in the distribution of game pieces around the board and its removal from the board when certain conditions are met.

To play oware abapa you will need a game board and forty-eight game pieceswhich are so-called seeds. Usually the board consists of two rows of six holes located at opposite sides. Two larger holes on the sides of the board are used to store the seeds players capture during the match. It is said that the bottom row belongs to the player who moves first, named southand the upper row to the second player or north.

Oware board in its starting position Each of the playing holes contains exactly four seeds. In the starting position, each hole excluding the two largest ones stores contains exactly four seeds.

In this position the south player will make his first move, followed by a move by the north player and so on until the game ends. The goal of oware is to capture the greatest amount of seeds as possible. To do so, players make moves in alternate turns until one of them has captured more than 24 seeds. The player who captured more seeds than his opponent when the game ends wins the match. It may also happen that both players have captured the same amount of seeds at the end.

In this case, neither player wins the game and the match is said to have ended in a draw. Each move of the game is done in three phases: collectingsowing and capturing. During the sowing a player distributes the collected seeds along the board, and during the capture phase the player takes, if possible, the seeds found in the pits of the opponent. In the first phase of a movement, the player who is to move chooses one of the holes on his own side of the board and collects all the seeds on it, leaving the hole empty.

Subsequently, these seeds will be distributed on the board during the sowing phase. A player may collect the seeds from any of the holes that belong to him if it contains one or more seeds, only with the exception that after making the move his opponent must be able to play. Therefore, a move that would leave all the holes empty on the opponent's side is not legal. During sowing, the player distributes the seeds collected in the first phase along the board in a counterclockwise direction; dropping one seed in each of the playing holes until all the seeds are distributed.

A player will never sow on the holes used for storage. Sowing process in oware South sows 4 seeds, distributing them around the board one by one in a counterclockwise direction. After sowing the seeds, the hole from which the player has collected seeds will be empty. It may well be the case that the player sows twelve or more seeds, in which case the player will sow them going round around the board, dropping one seed in each hole in every round, but never dropping a seed in the hole from which the seeds were collected.

When the last sown seed is dropped in one of the holes belonging to the opponent, and after dropping the seed the hole contains exactly two or three seedsthe player will capture them. Taking all the seeds from the hole and saving them in his own store. When the hole immediately to the right of the last pit from which seeds were captured contains also two or three seeds, the player will capture them too.

And so on until the player cannot capture more seeds, always taking into account that players can only capture seeds from their opponents holes and never from their own holes. Capturing process in oware After sowing three seeds, collected from the F hole, south captures 5 seeds from holes b and c.

Note that a player can never capture all the seeds of the adversary. If a player makes a move that would capture all the seeds on the opponent's side, that player will sow normally but will not capture any seeds.

Typically, the game is over when one of the players has captured more than 24 seeds or when both of the players have captured 24 seeds.

oware rules pdf

It may also happen that a player cannot make any legal move on his turn, in such a case, each player captures the remaining seeds on their side of the board and the match ends. A special situation is when the game enters a cycle, so that the same positions and movements would repeat indefinitely.Email Us. Probably more than any other game, variations of the board game Mancala are multitudinous.

The first game listed here is Oware which is played on a two-rank Mancala board and which is common to West Africa and the Caribbean. Oware or variants of it is the most commonly played Mancala game in international competition. Oware Nam Nam is a game played on the same board by children in and around Ghana although it is just as complicated and quite different to Oware.

The third game is simply called Bao although Bao is a generic term referring to a number of Mancala games played in East Africa. We have two versions played on a 2 x 8 board in Kenya - Bao for children and beginners and a version of Bao from Kenya played with 32 pieces.

Wife and Husband Play Oware

The fourth game is a version of Bao Kiswahili; another very popular game played on a four-rank Mancala board, which is played in Zanzibar, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and eastern Zaire.

The full game of Bao Kiswahili is one of the most complicated of all the Mancala games so for this reason, a beginners version called "Bao La Kujifunza" has been outlined. These rules are not intended to be a complete set of standard regulations encompassing all situations that might be encountered in play. Instead, they are a full set of instructions for friendly play and include additional comments designed to assist with the understanding of the game.

Philos Large Mancala - Kalaha. Oware Equipment The game of Oware is played on a surface consisting of two rows of six hollows. The playing pieces should be hard objects small enough so that 12 or 15 of them will comfortably fit in one hollow. The materials used are not important - the hollows might be scraped in the ground or in sand, they might be carved in a soapstone board or made from an old egg box.

Similarly the pieces might be small stones, marbles, shells or seeds. A typical combination is a wooden board with eight hollows carved in it and 48 small round seeds for pieces. On more ornate boards, there are often two extra hollows normally placed centrally at the end of each pair of rows. These are called "stores" - players place their captured stones in the store to their left.

Preparation and Objective Each of the 12 hollows is filled with four seeds. To decide who goes first, one player holds a seed in a fist.

If the opponent correctly guesses which fist holds the seed, the opponent starts. The objective is to capture more seeds than the opponent. Play Players take turns to play seeds.

To take a turn, the player first chooses a non-empty hollow from one of the six in the near row and picks up all the seeds contained in it. The player then drops a single seed into the next hollow in an anticlockwise direction, a single seed into the hollow after that and so on until the seeds run out. This is called "sowing" the seeds.

oware rules pdf

When the player reaches the end of a row, sowing continues in an anti-clockwise direction in the other row. When a player picks a hollow with so many seeds 12 or more that one or more laps is done, the 12th and 23rd seed is not played in the originating hollow - the originating hollow is skipped and the seed is played in the next hollow on. This means that the originating hollow is always left empty at the end of the turn. If the last seed is sown in the opponents row and the hollow concerned finishes with 2 or 3 seeds, those seeds are captured.

If the hollow that immediately precedes it also contains 2 or 3 seeds, these seeds are also captured and so on until a hollow is reached that does not contain 2 or 3 seeds or the end of the opponents row is reached. Finish If a player cannot play because all six hollows are empty, the game ends and all the seeds on the other side of the board are captured by the other player. However, a player is not allowed to deliberately play passively so as to cause this situation - if the opponent's hollows are all empty, the player is obliged to play so that at least one seed is sown onto the opponents side of the board if possible.

On the other hand, it is perfectly legitimate to play so as to capture all the opponents seeds thus leaving the player with no move and therefore also capturing all the remaining seeds in the near row. Such a play is known as "cutting off the head".

A common tactic is to attempt to cut off the head by collecting a large number of seeds in one hole while forcing the opponent to empty most of the hollows on the other side of the board.

Then at some appropriate point, the collection of seeds is played so that they are sown completely around the board once and into the opponents territory again resulting in several hollows with 2 or 3 stones in a row being captured.

When one player has captured 25 seeds, the game ends and that player is the winner.There is a wide ranged class of games called Mancala Manquala games. Often the term Sowing Games is used, too.

These class of games are well known worldwide. Nonetheless rules, structure of fields on board and even number of players strongly varies from game to game depending on geographic location, language and culture. Such that eventually the same game plus rules set could be found under a different name, too.

Still the origin seem to be quite clear for specific types at least. As a common aspect of these Mancala games the basic rules set on each player's turn is quite equal. A turn usually is performed by picking up the whole amount of tokens available on a chosen container on board first.

Then this picked up set of mostly one single sort of game tokens is distributed following a path on board formed by such containers holding the tokens.

Distribution on a player's turn is called sowing. Thus these corresponding games are known as Sowing Gamestoo. These containers are often named fieldstrou in Frenchpitsholesdepressionshouses or bowls.

Some games come with different types of such containers. Mostly an additional non standard type of container is just used for holding tokens representing the current player's score. The score is reflected by the amount of tokens contained. These larger size bowls might be named stores or simply Mancalas.

If such stores do not exist then tokens might simply be scored by removal from game play staying offboard for the rest of the game. Typically the tokens are represented by some game pieces like seedsbeadsbeansnutsstonescowry shellsor any sort of counters. Most Mancala games use undifferentiated tokens. In case of a fixed sowing path the bowls can be indentified or ordered by a simple index numbering.As with many other board games, oware is not a game of chance.

During the course of a game, the strongest players rely on well-planned strategies and execute well-known tactics with the clear purpose of obtaining the victory.

Below we explain the basic strategy of oware and how to easily determine which player has a better chance of winning. Don't let them beat you again!

How to play Oware and Wari | Official Rules

Oware's basic strategy consists in moving the game pieces in such a way that favorable positions for the player may be obtained. That is, the player shall try to obtain a distribution of the pieces on the board that makes it possible for him to capture more seeds than the opponent in later moves. Therefore, it is important to minimize the number of holes that contain less than three seeds in the player's own rowas this will decrease the chances for the opponent to capture their seeds.

At the same time, the player would want to maximize this variable in the holes of the opponent, so that the probability of capturing their seeds becomes higher. Another well-known strategy in the game is to accumulate a large number of seeds in one of the holes belonging to the player.

A hole of this kind that contains twelve or more seeds, so that it can be sown completing a full turn around the board, it is called a kroo.

Collecting seeds in such large groups makes it possible for the player to capture a huge number of seeds in a single move up to fifteen in oware abapa. Allowing the opponent to perform such a capture is usually an unrecoverable strategic mistake. Measuring the advantage of player at a particular point in the game is a difficult task that will depend on the peculiarities of each position.

Still, it is possible to estimate the superiority of a player by giving a value to each hole on the oware board. So, if a player has captured five more seeds than his opponent, his advantage is about 10 points. Similarly, each of the holes on the board also represent an advantage or disadvantage for the player by the number of seeds contained therein. This is an evaluation that can be estimated quite easily with the following table. Keeping in mind that it is only an approximation and that the actual value will depend on the specific position.

For each seed the player has captured add 2 points. Add 3 points for each hole in the opponent's row containing one or two seeds; add 4 points for each of the opponent's holes containing no seeds and 2 extra points if the player has accumulated over twelve seeds in any of his own holes. After doing the same calculation from the viewpoint of the opponent, it will be easy to know which of the two players has an obvious advantage.

As can be seen from the table above in oware the value of a kroo is relative. Accumulating more than twelve seeds in a single hole is only really useful if it can be used to capture a huge number of seeds, although since the opponent will certainly try to avoid it at all costs its outcome will often be only a slight strategic advantage.

The game also admits a number of tactics aimed at achieving strategic goals. Amongst the most common we can find the following tactics. Oware abapa problem In this position, south —who is to play— can win using a variety tactics.

Table of contents Back to top. Play mancala against your computer. Oware Strategy and Tactics As with many other board games, oware is not a game of chance.

Foundations of Strategy Oware's basic strategy consists in moving the game pieces in such a way that favorable positions for the player may be obtained. Board Evaluation Measuring the advantage of player at a particular point in the game is a difficult task that will depend on the peculiarities of each position.

Empty One seed Two seeds Kroo 4 points 3 points 3 points 2 points For each seed the player has captured add 2 points. Some Common Tactics The game also admits a number of tactics aimed at achieving strategic goals. Attacking two or more holes of the opponent simultaneously; so that the opponent cannot avoid the subsequent capture of their seeds. Hoarding seeds in the player's own territory while sowing them in the opponent's pits only in small quantities.

Thus forcing the opponent to make moves not favorable to his interests. Winning time is an important tactic in oware consisting on forcing the opponent to provide seeds to the player in order to obtain a strategic advantage.

oware rules pdf

Support Help About Contact. Navigation Site map. Languages Catalan English Spanish.Welcome to The Oware Society, the first organized body to promote and organize International Oware Tournaments worldwide. With a worldwide membership of players and enthusiasts of all abilities. We have something to offer everyone, from beginner to Grandmaster or for those just seeking information.

In addition to organizing tournaments nationally and internationally the OWS supports and promotes Oware activities worldwide.

We also publish a quarterly newsletter, 'Oware News' for members. Oware Fund : You can support worldwide Oware activities by making a contribution to the fund and receive recognition in 'Oware News'. Click here for information about the Oware fund. Email: admin oware. Mwalimu Express. Want to learn how to play an Ancient African Mathematical Board Game, develop your mental agility, sharpen your strategic thinking or just want to have fun and be entertained.

Just come along to Mwalimu Express, Sunday 22nd of March from - This months destination is yet to be announced Subsequent sessions will take place on the fourth Sunday of every month, the next being 26th April at the same venue and same times. Just look out on this site or our Facebook page for future dates. Just send us an e-mail if you will like to do so. This weeks Online Sowing Oware Tournament the th edition will take place on Wednesday the 11th March from For this tournament there is no qualifying phase.

Players go straight into the final phase. Each round lasts 8 minutes in duration. The top 4 positioned players usually get free LudoTeka subscriptions of varying lengths. In order to participate you have to be registered with LudoTeka which takes a few minutes to do. Then you have to register for the next edition of the Tournament. You can set your preferences so that whenever there is a tournament you will be entered and notified. Please note we are not hosting this tournament merely publicising it.

Come and learn to play the oldest game in the world. If you can count from one to fifty then you are eligible to play. As valuable as chess but easy as checkers to learn and a great teaching tool for decision making. Players of all skill levels and ages are invited. Great learning tool for kids learning to count!

Great teaching tool for adolescents and young adults in the process of decision making! Great mental exercise for older adults! YMCA membership is not required for participation. This event takes place on the 1st Saturday of every month, except July For more information contact: Oba Cullins or warri warri. A game course is designed with African games, Oware, checkers, amps for girls and ping pong, table football, billiards, darts, etc.

The evening is rounded off with a final dance and a joint snack.Over the years a lot of confusion has developed over the many differing names Oware is known by.

The problem has been that as many languages that there are in one particular country there will be about the same number of names for Oware, plus the names that would come under these generic names.

This scenario is repeated in almost all African countries. This has lead to some people identifying the wrong names with differing rules. We have decided in order to try and solve this problem, to promote Oware Abapa as the foremost version to be played whilst still highlighting accurately the differing versions that exist. Oware or variations of this name is the most popular name the game is known by, along the West African coast and the Caribbean i.

Oware is the name given to the game by the Akan speaking people of Ghana. Even this name is a generic name, with at least three versions being covered by this umbrella name. Traditionally and today the version that has been used in competitions is known as Abapa literally translated as the proper version. Abapa has always been known as the adult's version, played by those who have graduated from playing Nam-nam the children's version. Oware belongs to the pit and pebbles or count and capture classification of games.

There are many versions of pit and pebble games, over in all, having differing rules. Three major types exist, distinguished by the number of rows the board has. Two row boards are the most popular of which Oware is an example. These games can have a varying number pits along the board from 5 to 14, but the 6 pits long board is the most popular.

oware rules pdf

Being played predominantly in West Africa and the Caribbean. Although Bao is the most popular name for the Four-row type, it has other names depending on the version. You will find these played mainly in East Africa. Three-row type e. Gebeta is the least popular and is confined to Ethiopia and Eritrea to our knowledge.

A major obstacles to understanding the many differing versions that exist has been the use of Mancala as a generic name for all versions of count and capture games by academics. Mancala Mankaleh meaning the game of intelligence to our knowledge is only one version of Oware played in predominantly the Arabic speaking part of the world. Although it uses the same board the rules are different to Oware.

The Rules of Mancala

Whereas with Oware captured seeds are taken of the board or stored in houses at either side of the board, thus making these store houses, unnecessary as the captured seeds can be placed in front of you behind the board.

Mancala is different in that these end storehouses are necessary to play the game, as when sowing the seeds one has to sow in these end houses to capture seeds. Mancala is the same as Bantumi, which is featured on Nokia phones.

It is also similar to Sungka and Chongkak played in the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia in how seeds are captured. These have varying number of seeds to begin the game, from 3 to 7.

Another problem has been that the same sets of rules have been called different names because of language differences. Another level of complication is that for Ouri there is a variation of this same set of rules where capture is compulsory, this is called the Ourin mode by Olivier and Didier Gullion programmers of Awale the computer program that plays several versions of Oware. We hope what is detailed above will go some way to clearing up some of the confusion that surrounds Oware and the many versions that exist.

This not by any means the end of the story or the final word on the matter. So if you have anything to add make, please feel free to e-mail us at admin oware.